If you’re interested in history or want to be an architect someday, learning the chronological progression of architectural history will help you develop a deeper appreciation for the buildings and structures that surround you. In this article, we will take a look at some of the oldest instances of architecture that have been documented, as well as the way that architecture has changed over the course of time.
Mesopotamia, about 3100 BCE, is where we find the first instances of building that have been documented. The earliest evidence of the usage of arches and columns, as well as the building method of mud bricks, is found here. After leaving Mesopotamia, we go to Egypt, where we find that the Egyptians created their own distinct architectural style via the use of stone and wood. On the island of Crete, the emergence of Minoan architecture may be traced back to around 1700 BCE. The intricate decorations and the maze-like arrangement are two characteristics that define this. The style of construction known as Mycenaean architecture, which originated approximately 1400 BCE, is comparable to that of Minoan architecture but has a stronger emphasis on defense.
Architecture that is considered to be of a classical nature was created in Greece and Rome between the years 500 BCE and 300 CE. Greek architects were famous for their use of columns and temples, while Roman architects were noted for incorporating aspects of design that were influenced by both Greek and Etruscan architecture. Following the destruction of the Roman Empire in 476 CE, Constantinople became the center of the development of Byzantine architecture (modern-day Istanbul). The use of domes and mosaics are the defining characteristics of this design. During this time period, Islamic architects also made substantial contributions, constructing such recognizable characteristics as minarets and arabesque patterns. Romanes
The oldest examples of building that have been documented.
The architecture of Mesopotamia.
Mesopotamia is the location of the first instances of architecture that have been documented. The most well-known examples are the ziggurats, which are enormous pyramids with stepped surfaces that were utilized as temples. The palace of Ur-Nammu, the Temple of Inanna, and the Great Ziggurat of Babylon are three other significant constructions that were constructed in Mesopotamia.
The architecture of ancient Egypt
The temple complex at Karnak and the Pyramids of Giza are two of the most famous examples of early Egyptian architecture. Karnak is among the biggest temple complexes that have ever been constructed, and the Pyramids of Giza are among the most famous and recognizable structures found anywhere in the world. The Valley Temple of Khafre and the Great Sphinx of Giza are two other important examples of Egyptian architectural achievement.
The architecture of the Minoans
The use of curved lines and organic shapes distinguishes Minoan architecture from other architectural styles. The Palace of Knossos is perhaps the best-known example of this kind of structure. It was a sizable complex that had a number of chambers and courtyards. Other important Minoan structures are the Temple Complex at Phaistos and the Palace of Malia, both of which are located on Crete.
Architecture from the time of Mycenae
An outgrowth of Minoan architecture, Mycenaean architecture emerged on the mainland of Greece during the Bronze Age. This branch is known as Mycenaean architecture. Buildings like as the Treasury of Atreus and the Lion Gate in Mycenae are examples of notable Mycenaean structures. Mycenaean architects were responsible for the creation of a number of significant palaces, including those located at Pylos, Tiryns, and Mycenae itself.
Architecture of the classical period.
Architecture of the Greeks
The beginning of the Greek era in the history of architecture is often considered to be 776 BC, which was the year of the first Olympic Games, and ends in 323 BC, which was the year that Alexander the Great passed away. During this time period, Greek architects designed and constructed some of the most remarkable and well-known structures in the world, including the Parthenon in Athens.
Greek religion (which put a strong focus on temples), Greek philosophy (which emphasised harmony and balance), and Greek art were all significant influences on Greek architecture (which was highly stylized). In addition to this, they relied greatly on the architecture of their contemporaries, particularly that of Egypt and Mesopotamia, which they incorporated into their own designs.
The use of columns is one of the aspects that most distinguishes Greek architecture from that of other cultures. Columns are vertical supports that may either be used for structural purposes or for ornamental purposes. The ancient Greeks were responsible for the development of a wide variety of column styles, each of which included its own particular proportions and design.
The use of pediments is another key element that can be seen in Greek architecture. A triangular component that is installed above a doorway or window is known as a pediment. It often includes sculpture as well as other forms of embellishment.
Entablatures were a common element in the architecture of ancient Greece. One definition of an entablature describes it as “a horizontal piece that lies on top of columns.” It is composed of the architrave (which is the smallest section), the frieze (which is the middle part), and the cornice (which is the largest element) (the highest part). Entablatures are often embellished with sculpture or some other kind of ornate decoration.
Architecture of the Romans
The time period known as Roman architecture began about 500 B.C. and continued until the fall of Rome in 476 AD at the hands of the Goths. During this time period, Roman architects designed and constructed some of the most remarkable structures ever built, such as the Pantheon and the Colosseum.
Roman architects were inspired by a variety of different causes, some of which include: their religion, which put a significant focus on public works like as temples and baths; their political system, which needed huge buildings to impress foreign visitors; and their technical talents (which allowed them to build very large structures). Additionally, they relied greatly on the work of their Greek forebears, adopting many characteristics of Greek architecture and blending them into their own designs.
The increased use of concrete in Roman architecture in comparison to Greek architecture is one of the most notable distinctions between the two styles of construction. Concrete is a substance that is produced by combining sand, gravel, water, and lime into a paste. While the paste is still wet, concrete may be shaped into any form. After it has had a chance to dry, it will become quite robust and long-lasting. Because of this, it was an excellent choice for use in the construction of enormous structures, such as amphitheaters and baths. In order to construct vaults and domes, which would not have been feasible with stone alone, the Romans made use of concrete.